# R code

### Ways of plotting map data in R (and python)

Thanks to Scott Jackson, Daniel Ezra Johnson, David Morris, Michael Shvartzman, and Nathanial Smith for the recommendations and pointers to the packages mentioned below.

- R:
- The maps, mapsextra, and maptools packages provide data and tools to plot world, US, and a variety of regional maps (see also mapproj and mapdata). This, combined with ggplot2 is also what we used in Jaeger et al., (2011, 2012) to plot distributions over world maps. Here’s an example from ggplot2 with maps.

### Updated slides on GLM, GLMM, plyr, etc. available

Some of you asked for the slides to the** Mixed effect regression class** I taught at the **2013 LSA Summer Institute in Ann Arbor, MI**. The class covered some Generalized Linear Model, Generalized Linear Mixed Models, extensions beyond the linear model, simulation-based approaches to assessing the validity (or power) of your analysis, data summarization and visualization, and reporting of results. The class included slides from Maureen Gillespie, Dave Kleinschmidt, and Judith Degen (see above link). Dave even came by to Ann Arbor and gave his lecture on the awesome power of plyr (and reshape etc.), which I recommend. You might also just browse through them to get an idea of some new libraries (such as Stargazer for quick and nice looking latex tables). There’s also a small example to work through for time series analysis (for beginners).

Almost all slides were created in knitr and latex (very conveniently integrated into RStudio — I know some purists hate it, but comm’on), so that the code on the slides is the code that generated the output on the slides. Feedback welcome.

### Is my analysis problematic? A simulation-based example

This post is in reply to a recent question on in ling-R-lang by Meredith Tamminga. Meredith was wondering whether an analysis she had in mind for her project was circular, causing the pattern of results predicted by the hypothesis that she was interested in testing. I felt her question (described below in more detail) was an interesting example that might best be answered with some simulations. Reasoning through an analysis can, of course, help a lot in understanding (or better, as in Meredith’s case, anticipating) problems with the interpretation of the results. Not all too infrequently, however, I find that intuition fails or isn’t sufficiently conclusive. In those cases, **simulations can be a powerful tool in understanding your analysis**. So, I decided to give it a go and use this as an example of how one might approach this type of question.

### New R library for multilevel modeling

This might be of interest to many of you. MLwiN, a software package for multilevel modeling developed at Bristol that includes functions beyond those present in, e.g., *lmer*, now has an interface for R (kinda like WinBugs, etc.), so that you can continue to use R while taking advantage of the powerful tools in MLwiN. The package is called R2MLwiN. For more details, see below.

Dear all,

We are pleased to announce a new R package, R2MLwiN (Zhang et al. 2012)

that allows R users access to the functionality within MLwiN directly from

within the R package. This package has been developed as part of the e-STAT

ESRC digital social research programme grant along with the Stat-JR package.

See <http://www.bristol.ac.uk/cmm/software/r2mlwin/> for more details

including examples taken from the book MCMC Estimation in MLwiN.

Feedback gratefully received by either me or Zhengzheng Zhang (Z.Zhang@bristol.ac.uk).

Best wishes,

Bill Browne.

### Correlation plot matrices using the ellipse library

My new favorite library is the ellipse library. It includes functions for creating ellipses from various objects. It has a function, plotcorr() to create a correlation matrix where each correlation is represented with an ellipse approximating the shape of a bivariate normal distribution with the same correlation. While the function itself works well, I wanted a bit more redundancy in my plots and modified the code. I kept (most of) the main features provided by the function and I’ve included a few: the ability to plot ellipses and correlation values on the same plot, the ability to manipulate what is placed along the diagonal and the rounding behavior of the numbers plotted. Here is an example with some color manipulations. The colors represent the strength and direction of the correlation, -1 to 0 to 1, with University of Rochester approved red to white to blue.

First the function code:

### Creating spaghetti plots of eye-tracking data in R

I’ve been working on consolidating all the different R functions I’ve written over the years for plotting my eye-tracking data and creating just one amazing super-function (based on the ggplot2 package) that can do it all. Here’s a first attempt that anybody with the right kind of dataset should be able to use to create plots like the ones below (generated from fake data. The R code that generates the data is included at the end of the post). If you find this code helpful, please consider acknowledging it via the following URL in your paper/presentation to spread the word:

https://hlplab.wordpress.com/2012/02/27/creating-spaghetti-plots-of-eye-tracking-data-in-r/

### New R resource for ordinary and multilevel regression modeling

Here’ s what I received from the Center of Multilevel Modeling at Bristol (I haven’t checked it out yet; registration seems to be free but required):

The Centre for Multilevel Modelling is very pleased to announce the addition of R practicals to our free on-line multilevel modelling course. These give detailed instructions of how to carry out a range of analyses in R, starting from multiple regression and progressing through to multilevel modelling of continuous and binary data using the lmer and glmer functions. MLwiN and Stata versions of these practicals are already available. You will need to log on or register onto the course to view these practicals. Read More... http://www.cmm.bris.ac.uk/lemma/course/view.php?id=13