Thanks to Jeff Runner, I just became aware of this post-doctoral program of the NSF (in SBE, i.e. the Social, Behavioral & Economic Sciences, which includes psychology, cognitive science, and linguistics). This program also recently underwent some changes. The program provides 2 years of funding. As for eligibility, let me quote the linked page: Ph.D. degree of the fellowship candidate must have been obtained within 24 months before application deadline (previously was within 30 months) or within 10 months after the application deadline (previously was 12 months).
Good luck to everyone interested.